The hippocampus (plural: hippocampi) is an important component of the human brain, situated in the temporal lobe. It plays a role in information processing and the reproductive cycle and is involved in Alzheimer disease .
In Alzheimer's disease (and other forms of dementia ), the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage; short-term memory loss and disorientation are included among the early symptoms. Damage to the hippocampus can also result from oxygen starvation ( hypoxia ), encephalitis , or medial temporal lobe epilepsy . People with extensive, bilateral hippocampal damage may experience anterograde amnesia : the inability to form and retain new memories .