On October 16, 1859, the abolitionist John Brown led a group of 21 men in a raid on the arsenal. Five of the men were black: three free black men, one a freed slave and one a fugitive slave. During this time assisting fugitive slaves was illegal under the Fugitive Slave Act. Brown attacked and captured several buildings; hoping to secure the weapons depot and arm the slaves, starting a revolt across the south. Brown also brought 1,000 steel pikes, which were forged in Connecticut by a blacksmith and abolitionists sympathizer, Charles Blair; however, the pikes would see no action as Brown failed to rally the slaves to revolt (https://www. kshs. org/kansapedia/john-brown-pike/10239). The first shot of the raid mortally wounded Heyward Shepherd, a free black man who had been a night baggage porter for the B&O Railroad running through Harpers Ferry attempting to warn the slave owners near the armory. The noise from that shot alerted Dr. John Starry shortly after 1:00 am. He walked from his nearby home to investigate the shooting and was confronted by Brown's men. Starry stated that he was a doctor but could do nothing more for Shepherd, and Brown's men allowed him to leave. Instead of going home, Starry went to the livery and rode to neighboring towns and villages, alerting residents to the raid. When Starry reached nearby Charles Town, the church bells were rung to arouse the citizens from their sleep. John Brown's men were quickly pinned down by local citizens and militia, and forced to take refuge in the engine house adjacent to the armory.